Provision of services for the diagnosis and treatment of COPD | Print |
Monday, 09 November 2015 00:00
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - a chronic disease, which is characterized by the appearance of shortness of breath, against the backdrop of worsening physical exertion and prolonged cough.
foto
The disease is a chronic inflammation in the airways and lungs that develops in response to the adverse effects smoking, occupational exposures.
Early diagnosis of COPD Lastly, there are extremely important for early treatment. Late initiation of therapy is not always able to stop the progression of COPD. The sooner the enemy detected, the faster it will be neutralized.
You can suspect the presence of COPD, if a person complains about the long-term cough, occurs more frequently in the morning, as well as shortness of breath, increasing with the load. Most often, the development of these symptoms preceded by a long smoking history or labor, coupled with the inhalation of industrial pollutants. To confirm the diagnosis of COPD and appropriate treatment should consult a pulmonologist and conduct functional studies.
To be sure of the diagnosis of COPD, spirometry is necessary to perform a bronchodilation test to prove irreversible airflow obstruction. More fully assess the condition of the respiratory system allow such modern methods of functional study kakbodipletizmografiya with lung diffusion capacity and ergospirometry. In addition, important diagnostic information and may provide additional research methods - X-ray or computed tomography (CT) of the chest, bronchoscopy, bacteriological examination of sputum, blood gas analysis, ultrasound of the heart). An in-depth examination should be carried out as well, because the progression of COPD will inevitably affect other organs, especially the cardiovascular system to the formation of chronic pulmonary heart, nervous (depression, sleep disorders), musculoskeletal system (osteoporosis, loss of muscle mass).
What to do if you have established the diagnosis of COPD?
In time started drug therapy can help reduce the severity of symptoms of the disease and contain its rate of progression.
Medication
The doctor-pulmonologist taking into account individual characteristics of the disease, comorbidity, and the results of diagnostic tests
select drugs for long-term basic therapy, as well as to eliminate the symptoms;
will help you choose the method of drug delivery to the respiratory tract (metered-dose inhaler, a dry powder inhaler, an aerosol inhaler with a spacer, nebulizer), teach proper technique of inhalation preparation;
It teaches self-control rules and tactics during exacerbation of the disease.
Drug-free treatment
In the complex treatment of COPD is important are non-drug measures:
smoking cessation and sustainable employment;
the use of breathing exercises;
patient education;
oxygen therapy;
pulmonary rehabilitation.
Ergospirometry
The quality of life is largely determined by its ability to lead a full active life (to move, to perform professional and everyday tasks). Unfortunately, many diseases such as respiratory and circulatory systems leads to decreased physical activity of patients. In some cases it is difficult to determine what kind of failure in the system does not allow a person to lead an active life, as any load is accompanied by hard work and the respiratory and cardiovascular system, and the gas transport system. In cases where the examination of the lungs and heart alone does not give a complete picture of the functionality of the patient is carried ergospirometry.
Ergospirometry - a modern method of research, which allows you to simultaneously evaluate the functioning of the heart and lungs during exercise. This is a very difficult diagnostic test, conduct which requires not only highly qualified doctor and the availability of sophisticated high-tech equipment, but also the efforts of the patient.
The results of this study to evaluate the tolerability of the patient exercise, its functional reserves, severity of cardiac and respiratory failure. Information obtained via ergospirometry has not only diagnostic, but also prognosticheksoe value and is used pulmonologists, cardiologists, surgeons, rehab, sports medicine physicians.
When necessary to carry out ergospirometry?
Ergospirometry method used for more in-depth study the functional features of patients with pulmonary (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial lung disease, pulmonary vascular lesions) and heart disease (chronic congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease). Ergospirometry can help in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary and cardiac disease, allowing to monitor disease progression and response to treatment. Most research is needed in the planning of cardiac surgery, the development of the program of rehabilitation of the patient. Ergospirometry method is widely used in sports medicine to evaluate the reserve capacity of the athletes.
How is ergospirometry?
During the study, patients perform physical activity increasing capacity on the cycle ergometer (cycling) under the close supervision of a physician.
foto
During the test, using the connected sensors recorded the electrocardiogram and blood pressure, and with a special facial mask is determined by ventilation, oxygen consumption of the patient, and carbon dioxide emission. Computer program records all parameters and functional diagnostics doctor then interprets the information. Load test continues until the patient a certain level of heart rate, which is calculated individually depending on the age. Additionally, the load is terminated when a chest pain or shortness of breath as well as the appearance of changes in the ECG or blood pressure too high. Duration of the study, is generally about 15-20 minutes. All information is then analyzed.
Is it safe to conduct ergospirometry?
With strict observance of the instructions of the doctor the risk of the stress test is minimal.
Before the start of the study, patients are instructed, in an accessible form gets complete information about the test procedure, possible complications and to take precautions. For safety during a test carried out continuous monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG), periodically measured blood pressure (BP), heart rate and blood oxygen saturation. If during the test the patient experience discomfort or pain in the chest, shortness of breath, weakness, and also if there are changes in ECG or an excessive increase in blood pressure, the load is stopped. In addition, the patient himself may at any time refuse to continue the investigation.
The Cabinet, which held ergospirometry, equipped with the necessary drugs and equipment for the timely assistance in the event of complications (increased blood pressure, heart rhythm disturbances).
This is counter-holding ergospirometry?
Because the study is accompanied by physical activity, there are some contraindications for the test. Studies have been conducted in patients with severe hypertension, arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, and in patients who have recently had a heart attack or stroke. In addition, research is contraindicated in patients with severe respiratory failure, acute infectious diseases. Therefore, the study is possible only after consulting a doctor with a complete inspection and implementation of some of the more simple investigations (ECG, spirometry, echocardiography).
The disease is a chronic inflammation in the airways and lungs that develops in response to the adverse effects smoking, occupational exposures.
Early diagnosis of COPD Lastly, there are extremely important for early treatment. Late initiation of therapy is not always able to stop the progression of COPD. The sooner the enemy detected, the faster it will be neutralized.

You can suspect the presence of COPD, if a person complains about the long-term cough, occurs more frequently in the morning, as well as shortness of breath, increasing with the load. Most often, the development of these symptoms preceded by a long smoking history or labor, coupled with the inhalation of industrial pollutants. To confirm the diagnosis of COPD and appropriate treatment should consult a pulmonologist and conduct functional studies.
To be sure of the diagnosis of COPD, spirometry is necessary to perform a bronchodilation test to prove irreversible airflow obstruction. More fully assess the condition of the respiratory system allow such modern methods of functional study kakbodipletizmografiya with lung diffusion capacity and ergospirometry. In addition, important diagnostic information and may provide additional research methods - X-ray or computed tomography (CT) of the chest, bronchoscopy, bacteriological examination of sputum, blood gas analysis, ultrasound of the heart). An in-depth examination should be carried out as well, because the progression of COPD will inevitably affect other organs, especially the cardiovascular system to the formation of chronic pulmonary heart, nervous (depression, sleep disorders), musculoskeletal system (osteoporosis, loss of muscle mass).

What to do if you have established the diagnosis of COPD?
In time started drug therapy can help reduce the severity of symptoms of the disease and contain its rate of progression.

Medication
The doctor-pulmonologist taking into account individual characteristics of the disease, comorbidity, and the results of diagnostic tests
select drugs for long-term basic therapy, as well as to eliminate the symptoms;
will help you choose the method of drug delivery to the respiratory tract (metered-dose inhaler, a dry powder inhaler, an aerosol inhaler with a spacer, nebulizer), teach proper technique of inhalation preparation;
It teaches self-control rules and tactics during exacerbation of the disease.
Drug-free treatment
In the complex treatment of COPD is important are non-drug measures:
smoking cessation and sustainable employment;
the use of breathing exercises;
patient education;
oxygen therapy;
pulmonary rehabilitation.
Ergospirometry

The quality of life is largely determined by its ability to lead a full active life (to move, to perform professional and everyday tasks). Unfortunately, many diseases such as respiratory and circulatory systems leads to decreased physical activity of patients. In some cases it is difficult to determine what kind of failure in the system does not allow a person to lead an active life, as any load is accompanied by hard work and the respiratory and cardiovascular system, and the gas transport system. In cases where the examination of the lungs and heart alone does not give a complete picture of the functionality of the patient is carried ergospirometry.

Ergospirometry - a modern method of research, which allows you to simultaneously evaluate the functioning of the heart and lungs during exercise. This is a very difficult diagnostic test, conduct which requires not only highly qualified doctor and the availability of sophisticated high-tech equipment, but also the efforts of the patient.

The results of this study to evaluate the tolerability of the patient exercise, its functional reserves, severity of cardiac and respiratory failure. Information obtained via ergospirometry has not only diagnostic, but also prognosticheksoe value and is used pulmonologists, cardiologists, surgeons, rehab, sports medicine physicians.

When necessary to carry out ergospirometry?
Ergospirometry method used for more in-depth study the functional features of patients with pulmonary (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial lung disease, pulmonary vascular lesions) and heart disease (chronic congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease). Ergospirometry can help in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary and cardiac disease, allowing to monitor disease progression and response to treatment. Most research is needed in the planning of cardiac surgery, the development of the program of rehabilitation of the patient. Ergospirometry method is widely used in sports medicine to evaluate the reserve capacity of the athletes.

How is ergospirometry?
During the study, patients perform physical activity increasing capacity on the cycle ergometer (cycling) under the close supervision of a physician.
During the test, using the connected sensors recorded the electrocardiogram and blood pressure, and with a special facial mask is determined by ventilation, oxygen consumption of the patient, and carbon dioxide emission. Computer program records all parameters and functional diagnostics doctor then interprets the information. Load test continues until the patient a certain level of heart rate, which is calculated individually depending on the age. Additionally, the load is terminated when a chest pain or shortness of breath as well as the appearance of changes in the ECG or blood pressure too high. Duration of the study, is generally about 15-20 minutes. All information is then analyzed.

Is it safe to conduct ergospirometry?
With strict observance of the instructions of the doctor the risk of the stress test is minimal.
Before the start of the study, patients are instructed, in an accessible form gets complete information about the test procedure, possible complications and to take precautions. For safety during a test carried out continuous monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG), periodically measured blood pressure (BP), heart rate and blood oxygen saturation. If during the test the patient experience discomfort or pain in the chest, shortness of breath, weakness, and also if there are changes in ECG or an excessive increase in blood pressure, the load is stopped. In addition, the patient himself may at any time refuse to continue the investigation.
The Cabinet, which held ergospirometry, equipped with the necessary drugs and equipment for the timely assistance in the event of complications (increased blood pressure, heart rhythm disturbances).

This is counter-holding ergospirometry?
Because the study is accompanied by physical activity, there are some contraindications for the test. Studies have been conducted in patients with severe hypertension, arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, and in patients who have recently had a heart attack or stroke. In addition, research is contraindicated in patients with severe respiratory failure, acute infectious diseases. Therefore, the study is possible only after consulting a doctor with a complete inspection and implementation of some of the more simple investigations (ECG, spirometry, echocardiography).