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Tuberculosis - chronically proceeding infectious disease which can amaze any body, but more often - lungs.


The infecting agent - M.tuberculosis - very steady in environment, but quickly perishes under the influence of direct sun rays. It is possible to be infected more often or inhaling an infecting agent, or through stomach an intestinal path. The infection centre - the sick pulmonary form of a tuberculosis which at breath, cough or conversation allocates the activator in environment.

If Mycobacteria tuberculosis has got to an organism of the child by means of blood or a lymph it can get to any body. At children's age mycobacteries get into lymph nodes which are round a trachea and bronchial tubes more often. Such form of illness name - a tuberculosis of intrachest lymph nodes.


Illness development is promoted by following factors: an insufficient, defective food; poor housing conditions (crude, badly aired, semibasement premises); accompanying diseases; psychoemotional overloads, mental and physical traumas; children's infectious diseases etc.

Mycobacteries, being in an organism of the child, change skin sensitivity on tuberculinum. Using tuberculinum test of Mantu, it is possible to define infected the child a tuberculosis. Infected children not always fall ill with a tuberculosis.


Clinical symptoms of illness. At a tuberculosis there are no especial symptoms more often. Illness can proceed as sharp respiratory virus disease after which the child long ails, as a long bronchitis, a pneumonia which is not giving in to treatment, increase in lymph nodes in many groups etc. Sometimes an onset of the illness proceeds imperceptibly, without special signs. Children of early age become irritable, whining, whimsical, appetite worsens, badly add in weight


Children of advanced age can complain of a headache, weariness, dizziness, drowsiness, temperature (37,0 - 37,2).


If illness progresses, cough (with or without мокроты), a short wind, sometimes - pains in a thorax can join. If the child continues to be in close contact to the patient and treatment is not begun, the easy form of a primary tuberculosis can become complicated bronch- and pulmonary process, a pleura inflammation, a tuberculosis of kidneys, bone- and articulate or central nervous system.

The tuberculosis of the central nervous system can develop at children who have not received BCG vaccination (an inoculation against a tuberculosis).


How in time to distinguish a tuberculosis? Active and passive diagnostics of a tuberculosis is possible. Passive diagnostics - the patient addresses to the doctor with complaints. But at children of the complaint appear, when process is already very started. Therefore and the World, and in Belarus also, apply active diagnostics of a tuberculosis, using Skin test - reaction of Mantu. The given trouble-shooting test is applied once a year, and in group of children with the raised risk of development of illness - two times a year.


Group of the raised risk of disease by a tuberculosis concern: children who are in close contact to the tubercular patient (one apartment, the general staircase, etc.); children from families of social risk; children which parents often change a residence; children living in boarding schools, shelters; children who are often ill acute respiratory syndroms, bronchitis relapses, a pneumonia; children, with different chronic diseases; sick of a diabetes; children receiving long hormonal therapy; children who have not received BCG vaccination or without a scar after BCG vaccination.


If after result reception туберкулинового the test there is a suspicion on infection of tuberculosis, it is necessary to direct the child on consultation to the phthisiatrician. If the person only is infected by a tuberculosis, it is not sick and is not dangerous to others. Presently more than half of population of a planet are infected by a tuberculosis. If natural protective forces of an organism for any reason decrease, a part of infected children can be ill, therefore it appoint a course of Isoniasid prophylaxy to 3 months. Usually this course spend изониазидом which suppresses reproduction mycobateries and warns illness development. If the child all - was ill, it should receive long treatment by several preparations.


How to arrive, not to be ill with a tuberculosis? As the tuberculosis is an infectious disease, that important for disease decrease - to liquidate the infectious centre. It means: in due time to reveal the patient; effectively to treat it.


Children from disease by a tuberculosis are protected by BCG vaccine which all healthy newborns receive for 3-5th day in maternity home or later in polyclinic.


To save the child from ТБ and in due time to distinguish this illness, it is important to remember:

- Children catch a tuberculosis from sick adults


- If the member of your family, the near relation, the neighbour whom the child often met was ill, the child is necessary for surveying at once, and the adult necessarily should be treated to stop illness distribution;

- Parents or trustees should know, whether the child has received inoculation BCG;

- If the child has the raised risk of disease by a tuberculosis туберкулиновую test is done if necessary by two times a year;

- In no event it is impossible to begin self-treatment as wrong, irregular application of medicines causes stability микобактерий to medicines and illness becomes hard to cure.


In time diagnosed and it is correct  any forms of a tuberculosis at children may be cure.